The Butch Blues

Lisa Hix celebrates the gender-bending women of the Harlem Renaissance:

As it turns out, the blues world was the perfect realm for people who were thought of as “sexual deviants” to inhabit, as it thrived far outside the scope of the dominant white American culture in the early 20th century. In Jazz Age speakeasies, dive bars, and private parties, blue singers had the freedom to explore alternative sexuality, and on a rare occasion, they even expressed it in song.


“In lyrics, they talk about ‘bulldaggers,’ which is they called butch lesbians at that time, or ‘BD women,’ ‘BD’ being short for bulldaggers,” [documentarian Robert Phillipson] says. “There were references to being ‘in the life,’ which was understood to mean same-sex activity.”

In 1930’s “The Boy in the Boat,” Ma Rainey’s protégé Bessie Smith sang, “When you see two women walking hand in hand, just look ’em over and try to understand: They’ll go to those parties–have the lights down low–only those parties where women can go.” A married woman who kept a female lover on the road with her, Smith is known to have exploded at a girlfriend, “I got twelve women on this show, and I can have one every night if I want it.”

(Photo: Blues performer Gladys Bentley)